A glance at a topographical map of Turkey reveals that this is a country of mountains. Rising from all four directions, mountains encircle the peninsula of Anatolia. A part of the Alpine-Himalayan Mountain range, Turkey has mountainous regions with different geological formations. The North Anatolian range skirts the Mediterranean shore.
Turkey’s magnificent mountains and forests are mostly undeveloped, existing as wonderful natural preserves for an extraordinary variety of wild life, fauna and the flora. Two of Turkey’s most famous peaks are volcanoes, both inactive ,Mt. Erciyes in Kayseri in Central Anatolia (3917 meters) and Mt. Agri; (Ararat 5137 meters) in the east. Other mountain ranges are the Rize Kackar (3932 meters) in the eastern Black Sea region, Nigde Aladag; (3756 meters) in the central Taurus range, and the Cilo and Sat mountains (4136 meters) near Hakkari in the eastern Taurus.
The mountainous nature of the country has influenced its cultural evolution. For centuries, nomads and semi nomadic peoples have moved yearly to the fresh pastures of the higher elevations in the summer. These alpine meadows, called “yayla”, house nomadic people whose traditional culture is still preserved
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